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By David Kiefer, MD
Research about the human microbiome and the therapeutic effect of probiotics is changing fast. It can be difficult to know how to counsel our patients about this important topic. The following table is a summary of some of the recent Integrative Medicine Alert articles as well as some additional recent intriguing and/or seminal works that, I would argue, should be at your fingertips when the topic comes up with your patients. Consider this a "Part 1." Part 2 will add some of the intriguing results surrounding the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis. Table 1 provides a summary of recent research, with diagnoses (and positive or negative effect), type of study, dosing, species (strains) used, and references, including when the topic was covered in Integrative Medicine Alert.
Aas J, et al. Recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis: Case series involving 18 patients treated with donor stool administered via a nasogastric tube. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:580-585.
Brenner DM, et al. The utility of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:1033-1049.
Butterworth AD, et al. Probiotics for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database System Rev 2008;(3):CD006634.
Catanzaro R, et al. The gut microbiota and its correlations with the central nervous system disorders. Panminerva Med 2014 Nov 12.
Hidding I, Koning C. Probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 2005;16:18-20.
Kalliomaki M, et al. Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: A cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:1019-1021.
Kim JY, et al. Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010;21(2 Pt 2):e386-e393.
Petrof EO, et al. Stool substitute transplant therapy for the eradication of Clostridium difficile infection: RePOOPulating’ the gut. Microbiome 2013;1:3.
Rajkumar H, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius UBL S22 and prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharide on serum lipids, inflammatory markers, insulin sensitivity, and gut bacteria in healthy young volunteers: A randomized controlled single-blind pilot study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2014 Oct 20.
Ridaura VK, et al. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science 2013;341(6150).
Sazawal S, et al. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: A meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:374-382.
Suez J, et al. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature 2014;514:181-186.
Tillisch K, et al. Consumption of fermented milk product with probiotic modulates brain activity. Gastroenterology 2013;144:1394-1401.
Tomasz B, et al. Long-term use of probiotics lactobacillus and bifidobacterium has a prophylactic effect on the occurrence and severity of pouchitis: A randomized prospective study. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:208064.
Vilahur G, et al. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7315/7316 intake modulates the acute and chronic innate inflammatory response. Eur J Nutr 2014 Nov 19.
West NP, et al. Probiotic supplementation for respiratory and gastrointestinal illness symptoms in healthy physical active adults. Clin Nutr 2014;33: