By Louis Kuritzky, MD, Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Florida, Gainesville. Dr. Kuritzky is an advisor for Endo, Kowa, Pricara, and Takeda.
COPD in Never Smokers
Source: Lamprecht B, et al. COPD in never smokers: Results from the population-based burden of obstructive lung disease study. Chest 2011;139:752-763.
Unless there is another overt cause, such as occupational exposure to toxic inhalants, we generally expect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to be secondary to cigarette smoking. The pulmonology literature consistently suggests that a substantial minority at least 20% is NOT related to cigarette smoking. This multinational survey by Lamprecht et al provides a fresh appraisal of the burden of COPD unrelated to smoking.
The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines were used to define COPD through spirometry. Primary cigarette smoking, exposure to secondary smoke, occupational exposure, and biomass exposure (for instance, cooking or home heating using wood, coal, dung, or crop residue) were all queried among 10,000 subjects from 14 countries.
Of the 4291 never smokers, 12.2% fulfilled GOLD criteria for COPD. Of all persons ultimately defined as meeting COPD criteria, just over one-fourth were never smokers. Women were disproportionately represented in the group of persons with moderate-severe COPD. It has been suggested that women may have greater susceptibility both to tobacco smoke as well as other potentially toxic inhalants.
COPD is now the third most common cause of death in America. Pulmonologists have suggested that COPD remains underdiagnosed. Based on these results, the authors suggest that symptomatic persons, even if never smokers, should be screened for COPD.
Early Prostate Cancer: Prostatectomy vs Watchful Waiting
Source: Bill-Axelson A, et al. Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2011;364:1708-1717.
The management of early prostate cancer (PCA) remains controversial. Although surgical and radiation interventions offer the opportunity for cure, many more men with early PCA die with the disease than from it. Were definitive interventions without risk, there likely would be little discussion about whether to intervene; however, because the potential consequences of intervention are significant (e.g., incontinence, erectile dysfunction), clarification of the risk:benefit ratio is critical.
A randomized multinational study of subjects from Sweden, Finland, and Iceland (n = 695) randomized men < 75 years of age with localized, moderately well to well-differentiated prostate cancer to either radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting. Men were followed for 12.8 years.
At 12.8 years, all-cause mortality was statistically significantly less in the surgery group (166/347) than the watchful waiting group (201/348). Similarly, PCA-related death was less in the surgically treated group (14.6% vs 20.7%). Benefits were clear for men < 65 years of age, but only a trend toward benefit (results not statistically significant) could be determined from the data in older men, possibly because of the smaller number of men in this age group.
Adverse effects of surgery were substantial. For instance, at 1 year, 32% of men had incontinence and 58% had impotence. Younger men with early PCA appear to enjoy mortality benefit from surgical intervention, though at a substantial adverse event cost. Competing causes of death in older men diminish the relative benefits of surgery.
Dietary Vitamin D and Incident Diabetes
Source: Gagnon C, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes after 5 years: Results from a national, population-based prospective study (the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study). Diabetes Care 2011;34:1133-1138.
The beta cells of the pancreas possess a vitamin D receptor, so perhaps we should not be surprised that vitamin D might be associated with diabetes (DM). Preliminary evidence has suggested that dietary vitamin D (VTD) might be associated with less risk for DM, but prior to this report, no large population study has provided sufficient information to be definitive.
Gagnon et al researched subjects involved in the AusDiab studies, which included 11,247 noninstitutionalized adults free of DM at baseline who underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) at baseline. Five years later about half (6537) of these had a repeat GTT, of which 80% were still not diabetic.
The investigators found a linear reverse relationship between reported dietary VTD and incident DM over a 5-year interval: for every 25 nmol/L increase in VTD, there was a 24% reduced risk of DM. Also studied in this same data set was calcium intake, which did not correlate with incident DM. Subjects in the top quartile of VTD intake enjoyed a 44% risk reduction for incident DM.
Because these are observational data, causation cannot be established. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of VTD supplementation will be necessary to confirm the preventive capacity of VTD.