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The clinical trial results (23 studies, n = 4082) were quite mixed, with some showing BMD benefit, some detriment, and some neutral. In essence, the net small benefit suggested by some trial data was of dubious clinical significance. These results should be distinguished from data on vitamin D in combination with calcium supplementation; since many trials provide vitamin D in combination with calcium (calcium does increase BMD), it has been sometimes misconstrued that each component of the vitamin D/calcium combo contributed to better BMD. The authors suggest that vitamin D would be best suited for persons with vitamin D insufficiency, rather than for all persons at risk for osteoporosis.