EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Diabetes has been associated with menstrual abnormalities, such as oligomenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. Better glycemic control and management to prevent diabetic complications can improve these irregularities and increase fertility rates similar to the general population.

  • Women with diabetes are at increased risk of macrovascular complications, microvascular complications, and metabolic syndrome. The reproductive health implications they face include effects on fertility, vaginitis, urinary tract infections, maternal risks, and neonatal risks.
  • In talking with women with diabetes about contraception, look at the most effective forms of birth control — the intrauterine device and the contraceptive implant — in those women who cannot risk pregnancy due to their disease.