Abhi Mehrotra, MD, MBA, FACEP, Vice Chair, Strategic Initiatives & Operations, Medical Director, Hillsborough Campus ED, University of North Carolina Department of Emergency Medicine.

Timothy D. Buff, MD, Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Leah M. Hatfield, PharmD, BCPS, Lead Clinical Pharmacist Specialist, Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina Medical Center, Chapel Hill.

Chad S. Kessler, MD, MHPE, Clinical Associate Professor, Emergency Medicine and Internal Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC.


Charles V. Pollack, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, Professor and Senior Advisor for Interdisciplinary Research and Clinical Trials, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia.

Statement of Financial Disclosure

To reveal any potential bias in this publication, and in accordance with Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines, we disclose that Dr. Farel (CME question reviewer) owns stock in Johnson & Johnson. Dr. Stapczynski (editor) owns stock in Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Walgreens Boots Alliance Inc., GlaxoSmithKline, Bristol Myers Squibb, and AxoGen. Dr. Hatfield (author) is a retained (nonpromotional) consultant for a product under development for Portola Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Mehrotra (author) is a stockholder and board member for MedScribes. Dr. Pollack (peer reviewer) has received grant/research support and is a retained consultant for: Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo; retained consultant for Janssen Pharma, BMS/Pfizer Alliance. Dr. Schneider (editor), Ms. Fessler (nurse planner), Dr. Buff (author), Dr. Kessler (author), Ms. Mark (executive editor), Ms. Coplin (executive editor), and Mr. Landenberger (editorial and continuing education director) report no financial relationships with companies related to the field of study covered by this CME activity.