Clipper Young, PharmD, MPH, Assistant Professor, Touro University California College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUCCOM), College of Pharmacy, Vallejo, CA

Joy Dugan, PA-C, MPH, Outpatient Clinical Instructor — Adjunct Assistant Professor, TUCCOM, College of Education and Health Science, Vallejo, CA

Kim Pfotenhauer, DO, Assistant Professor, TUCCOM, Vallejo, CA

Jay H. Shubrook, DO, Professor, TUCCOM, Vallejo, CA


Lawrence Mieczkowski, MD, Center for Cardiometabolic Treatment, Kettering, OH

To reveal any potential bias in this publication, and in accordance with Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines, Dr. Wise (editor) reports he is involved with sales for CNS Vital Signs. Dr. Shubrook (author) reports he receives research grants from Sanofi, Takeda, and Astra Zeneca, and is on the advisory boards for Lilly, Novo Nordisk, and GSK. Dr. Mieczkowski reports he is on the speakers bureau for Sanofi/Regeneron, Merck, and Novo Nordisk, and was a consultant for Astra Zeneca. Dr. Young, (author), Ms. Dugan (author), Dr. Pfotenhauer (author), Ms. Coplin (executive editor), and Ms. Mark (executive editor) report no financial relationships relevant to this field of study.