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H1N1 dosing and efficacy
Three recent studies in the Dec. 17, 2009, New England Journal of Medicine confirm that a single dose of the H1N1 vaccine is effective for most healthy adults and children age 3 and older. In the first study, 240 patients were equally divided to receive 15 mg or 30 mg of hemagglutinin antigen by IM injection. By day 21, antibody titers of 1:40 were observed in 95.0% of patients who received the 15 mg dose and 89.1% of patients who received the 30 mg dose (N Engl J Med 2009;361:2405-2413).
In the second study from China, antibody titers were done at 21 days after a first injection of 15 mg with or without adjuvant. A titer of 1:40 was achieved in 75% of subjects between age 3 and 11, 97.1% of subjects between age 12 and 17, 97.1% of subjects between age 18 and 60, and 79.1% of subjects age 61 and older. Alum adjuvant did not significantly raise antibody titers. Although a second injection at 21 days raised antibody titers, the authors conclude that a single dose of 15 mg induced a typically protective antibody response in the majority of subjects between age 12 and 60 (N Engl J Med 2009;361:2414-2423).
In the third study, standard H1N1 vaccine was compared to a MF59-adjuvanted vaccine (derived from cell culture rather than egg-based). A number of injection schedules were tested. Local reactions and muscle aches were more frequent in the MF59-adjuvanted vaccine. Although higher antibody titers were seen with the adjuvanted vaccine, significant titers were also seen within non-adjuvanted vaccine within 2-3 weeks (N Engl J Med 2009;361:2424-2435).
These findings confirm data previously published in the Lancet in the fall of 2009 confirming that one dose of the H1N1 vaccine seems adequate, although two doses may be required for younger children. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two doses for children younger than age 10, but the recommendations may change based on these findings.
In related news, the CDC is reporting that safety data regarding the H1N1 vaccine is "reassuring," with a rate of serious complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome no higher than "background rates." The rate of adverse event reporting has been higher with the H1N1 vaccine compared to seasonal flu; however, most of these reports have been for mild reactions and may be attributed to the higher rate of awareness associated with the new vaccine.