The FDA has approved fingolimod, the first oral drug for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod is a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator that is believed to reduce migration of lymphocytes into the central nervous system. Compared to interferon beta-1a, the annualized relapse rate was significantly lower with fingolimod. Patients need to be monitored for decreased heart rate and elevation of liver transaminases. Fingolimod is given as a once-daily 0.5 mg tablet. It is marketed by Novartis as Gilenya.
As anticipated, the FDA has approved dabigatran to prevent strokes and blood clots in patients with atrial fibrillation. The drug is a direct thrombin inhibitor and is given orally twice a day. The approval was based on the RE-LY trial, which showed that dabigatran at 150 mg given twice a day was superior to warfarin for this indication. Unlike warfarin, dabigatran requires no monitoring. Dabigatran will be available in 75 mg and 150 mg capsules and will be marketed as Pradaxa® by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals.
The FDA has ordered a labeling change for bisphosphonates, warning of the risk of atypical femoral fractures. In March, the FDA announced an ongoing safety review of bisphosphonates and the occurrence of subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures. The new warning is a result of that review and, while not acknowledging a direct link, the warning suggests that these fractures may be related to use of bisphosphonates for longer than 5 years. The agency further suggests that health care professionals consider periodic reevaluation of the need for continued bisphosphonate therapy in patients who have been on the drugs for more than 5 years. The labeling change will only affect bisphosphonates approved for osteoporosis, which include alendronate (Fosamax®), risedronate (Actonelsup®), ibandronate (Boniva®), and zoledronic acid (Reclast®).
The FDA has approved extended-release naltrexone to treat and prevent relapse of patients with opioid dependence who have undergone detoxification treatment. Extended-release naltrexone is administered by intramuscular injection once a month, and blocks opioid receptors in the brain. It was initially approved in 2006 to treat alcohol dependence. The drug is only approved for patients who have completed rehabilitation, otherwise it may trigger opioid withdrawal. The efficacy of naltrexone was shown in a 6-month placebo-controlled trial in which treated patients were more likely to stay in treatment and refrain from using illicit drugs. Extended-release naltrexone injection is marketed as Vivitrol® by Alkermes Inc.