Sources of Information

The following is a sampling of research papers on back pain, costs to industry, and medical treatment:

1. Spengler DM, Bigos SJ, Martin NA, et al. Back injuries in industry; A retrospective study. I. Overview and cost analysis. Spine 1986; 11:241-245.

2. Snook SH. The costs of back pain in industry. Occup Med. 1988; 3:1.

3. Wiesel S MD, Boden S MD, Feffer HI MD. A quality-based protocol for management of musculoskeletal injuries; a ten-year prospective outcome study. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 1994; 301:164-176.

4. Cherkin DC, Deyo RA, Wheeler K, et al. Physician variation in diagnostic testing for low back pain: Who you see is what you get. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1994; 37:15-22.

5. Waddell G. Failures of disc surgery and repeat surgery. Acta Orthop Belg 1987; 53:300-302.