9. In dextrose infiltration, the following are true except:
A. Loose dressings, elevation, and cold packs to the area are indicated.
B. Warm soaks should be avoided.
C. Injection of hyaluronidase at the site of extravasation has been shown to be harmful.
D. Large veins should be used for the infusion when possible.
10. All of the following statements are true except:
A. Extravasation rates vary from 23%-28% of all patients receiving IV therapy.
B. The "classic" initial signs and symptoms of extravasation are swelling, burning, tightness, blanching, and coolness.
C. The more severe and late manifestations of extravasation injuries are blister formation, ulceration, skin necrosis, compartment syndrome, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome.
D. The IV should be properly secured with tape, covered with gauze, and wrapped in webroll or a gauze dressing.
11. Treatment of phenytoin extravasations injuries includes all of the following except:
A. Immediate discontinuation of the infusion once detected, and aspiration of all residual fluid in the tubing and syringe.
B. Discontinuation of all use of that extremity until complete resolution of symptoms.
C. The extremity should be elevated and splinted to reduce edema, and dry heat should be applied to help redistribute the phenytoin throughout the forearm.
D. Moist heat is indicated because it can reduce skin breakdown.
12. All of the following statements regarding the treatment for dopamine or other vasopressor extravasation injuries are true except:
A. Phentolamine, which competitively blocks the alpha-adrenergic receptors, is the treatment of choice for vasopressors.
B. Phentolamine at 0.5mg/mL is most effective if given within the first 12 hours of extravasation.
C. The use of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate patches has been successful in treating ischemic areas to increase perfusion post extravasation.
D. Subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection is the treatment of choice.
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The participant will be able to:
• identify a true statement about dextrose infiltration;
• identify the signs and symptoms of extravasation;
• identify what is included in the treatment of phenytoin extravasations injuries;
• identify what is included in the treatment for dopamine or other vasopressor extravasation injuries.