CME Objectives

Upon completion of this educational activity, participants should be able to:

• recognize specific conditions in pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department;

• describe the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, historical and examination findings associated with conditions in pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department;

• formulate a differential diagnosis and perform necessary diagnostic tests;

• apply up-to-date therapeutic techniques to address conditions discussed in the publication;

• discuss any discharge or follow-up instructions with patients.

Physician CME Questions

1. Upper airway refers to all of the anatomical sites listed except:

A. posterior pharynx
B. trachea
C. bronchioles
D. epiglottis

2. Which organism listed below is the most common cause of infectious upper airway obstruction?

A. diphtheria
B. parainfluenza
C. RSV
D. Haemophilus influenzae

3. Foreign body aspiration occurs in what patient group most often?

A. < 3 years old
B. 3-6 years old
C. 6-14 years old
D. > 14 years old

4. The diagnosis of croup is usually made clinically, and X-rays are usually not indicated.

A. true
B. false

5. FDA-approved treatment in the United States for an acute episode of laryngeal edema in a patient with HAE includes which of the following?

A. FFP
B. ecallantide
C. C1 esterase inhibitor replacement protein (C1INHRP)
D. A and B
E. B and C

6. Obstruction at the level of the subglottis is auscultated as which of the following?

A. wheeze
B. stridor
C. whistle
D. rhonchi

7. Resistance to airflow through the airways is:

A. inversely proportional to the radius to the power of 4
B. proportional to half the length of the tube
C. equal the diameter of the airway

8. A lateral neck radiograph of a child with tracheitis typically demonstrates narrowing of the subglottic region and possibly irregularity of the wall of the trachea.

A. true
B. false

9. Which of the following treatments for croup is supported by evidence?

A. dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg as a single dose
B. prednisone 1 mg/kg PO QD x 7 days
C. heliox by inhalation
D. IM epinephrine

10. When treating deep neck infections, the microbes that should be treated empirically include all of the following except:

A. MSSA
B. Streptococcus
C. MRSA
D. Listeria