Researchers considered protocols that bypass the ED by allowing EMS to directly transport patients to a specialized regional center for evaluation of psychiatric emergencies. The protocols are somewhat controversial.
University of Michigan Health in Grand Rapids has dramatically improved metrics for stroke treatment, using communication tools to connect EMS teams with specialists in neurology, radiology, nursing, laboratory, and pharmacy. The improved communication makes it possible for the hospital to activate the appropriate personnel in the ED before stroke patients arrive.
The debate surrounding the relative merits of abstinence and fidelity vs. condom use (as if the two were mutually exclusive) remains a hotly contested issue, at least in the United States, where it has even spilled over into U.S. international family planning policy.