Inappropriate antibiotic use for a child with a viral respiratory infection is not a “one and done” error. Children who receive antibiotics when diagnosed with a viral respiratory infection are more likely to seek care for viral infections subsequently and to receive inappropriate antibiotics again.
A multicenter, retrospective, cohort study from southern and eastern Europe identified predictive factors for multidrug-resistant complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), which included male sex, cUTI acquisition in a healthcare facility, presence of a Foley catheter, having a UTI in the previous year, and receiving an antibiotic in the preceding 30 days.
A randomized, open-label, superiority trial found that daily antibiotic prophylaxis for patients who use clean, intermittent self-catheterization reduced symptomatic urinary tract infections by 48% over a 12-month period. Antibiotic resistance became prevalent in urinary isolates from the group receiving prophylaxis compared to controls.
A case-control study found that receipt of an oral antibiotic in the preceding three to 12 months was associated with nephrolithiasis. The risk persisted up to five years, and younger patients were at increased risk.
In a large population-based study, antibiotic use during the first six months of life was associated with a two-fold increase in asthma and a 1.5-fold increase in allergic disease during early childhood.