In this randomized, controlled trial of more than 3,000 women in developing countries with incomplete or missed abortion at less than 22 weeks’ gestation, antibiotic prophylaxis prior to uterine evacuation reduced infection rates when a strict definition for pelvic infection was used, but not when a more expanded definition was used.
Inappropriate antibiotic use for a child with a viral respiratory infection is not a “one and done” error. Children who receive antibiotics when diagnosed with a viral respiratory infection are more likely to seek care for viral infections subsequently and to receive inappropriate antibiotics again.
Tachypnea has long been considered to identify which children with acute fever and cough might benefit from antibiotic treatment, especially in resource-limited parts of the world. Now, with declining rates of vaccine-preventable infections with Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococcus, new data suggest that approximately 90% of febrile, tachypneic, coughing (but still well enough for outpatient treatment) preschoolers do fine without antibiotics.
In an observational study conducted at an academic medical center in London, researchers looked at factors involved in decision-making. The presumptive diagnosis of infection by the emergency department (ED) influenced decision-making by both medical and surgical admitting teams. Medical teams tended to use a multidisciplinary approach to antibiotic decision-making. Surgical teams often delegated antibiotic decision-making to the most junior members of the surgical team.
Researchers are investigating a rapid test that not only checks for gonorrhea infection, but also signals if a particular strain is antibiotic-resistant. On another front, scientists report that one dose of a developmental oral antibiotic proves effective in treating uncomplicated genital infections caused by gonorrhea.