This article addresses the pathophysiology, discusses various clinical presentations, and reviews current evidence-based practices for managing adrenal insufficiency and crisis in the emergency department.
Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) is a proposed disorder first named in 1998 that has been the subject of controversy in the literature. Although the debate has waned somewhat in the United States, it remains a topic of discussion in many European medical journals. A recent systematic review found no evidence for antimicrobial or immunomodulatory treatment for this condition.
The cause of most cases of small-fiber neuropathy is uncertain, but many patients have accompanying autoimmune biomarkers. In a carefully selected group of such patients, intravenous immunoglobulin treatment appears to provide benefit.