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Articles Tagged With: brain

  • Your Brain on COVID: Damage Found in Two New Studies

    Dementia and other adverse effects on the brain are occurring in some COVID-19 survivors, an ominous finding for the millions infected even those with only mild symptoms, according to two new studies.

  • Neuropathological Variability of NMDAR-Encephalitis

    The neuropathological features of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-encephalitis are described in an autopsy cohort of four patients two diagnosed in life with comorbid brain disorders, and two diagnosed at autopsy and never treated. The two untreated patients had inflammatory infiltrates composed of perivascular and parenchymal T cells and B cells/plasma cells in the basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus. The two treated patients had variable pathologies that reflected their underlying neurological disorders (lymphoproliferative disease and multiple sclerosis). Overall, the topographic distribution of inflammation in patients with NMDAR-encephalitis reflects the clinical symptoms of movement disorders, abnormal behavior, and memory dysfunction with inflammation predominantly observed in the basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus. Loss of NMDAR-immunoreactivity correlated with disease severity.

  • Neuropathological Findings in the Brains of Patients Who Died from COVID-19

    In an autopsy study of 41 patients who died from COVID-19 in a single medical center in New York City, most of the brain pathology was the result of hypoxic-ischemic injury, infarction, and hemorrhage, with microglial activation and neuronophagia caused by inflammation. Studies for the presence of viral proteins were negative, and very low levels of viral ribonucleic acid were detected.

  • IRBs Facing Ethically Controversial Questions on Brain Research

    The field of brain research sounds a lot like science fiction, but human neural organoids, human neural transplants, and human-animal chimeras all are imminent realities. IRBs are going to be facing some difficult decisions on whether this research can proceed. The authors of a recent report examined these issues.

  • Localized Slow Wave Sleep in the Awake but Inattentive Brain

    Electroencephalogram studies of humans during periods of “mind wandering” and “mind blanking” have shown regional changes that suggest parts of the brain may be asleep while other areas are activated.

  • Dietary Modifications with Linoleic Acid Can Have an Effect on Gut and Brain Inflammation

    This study evaluated the use of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation to modulate the disease outcome in a spontaneous mouse model of central nervous system autoimmunity and also studied patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis receiving CLA supplementation. CLA may act as a modulator of the gut-brain axis by targeting immune cells in the gut, with a subsequent effect in the brain.

  • Nocardia Brain Abscess

    A review of 24 cases of Nocardia brain abscess, two-fifths of which occurred in apparently non-immunocompromised hosts, had variable outcomes, but antibiotic therapy was effective in most.
  • Brain Cancer and Brain Injury Drive Systemic Immunosuppression

    Glioblastoma-associated immunosuppression is a significant factor associated with poor survival in this disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that mouse models of glioblastoma and other brain cancers induce systemic immunosuppression through dysregulation of a newly recognized brain-thymus axis and that targeting this pathway may promote more effective immune surveillance of these tumors.

  • Phospho-Tau217 Blood Biomarker May Help to Diagnose Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Serum phospho-tau217, a biomarker of tau protein that can be detected in the blood, is increased in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease and may have clinical utility for the early detection of brain pathology.

  • The Need for More Post-Acute COVID-19 Care Is on the Rise

    Hospitals nationwide have focused on handling overflow of COVID-19 patients needing acute care. They also are developing programs to handle post-acute medical problems discharged COVID-19 patients face.