Transplacental antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Egress Antigen-1 may protect infants from severe malarial infection during the first year of life. This new knowledge about these antibodies potentially can inform vaccine development.
Coinfection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children with influenza is associated with high fatality. Data support the addition of a second anti-MRSA antibiotic to vancomycin in severely ill children.
Infants with severe bronchiolitis sometimes develop subsequent recurrent wheeze and asthma. Among infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis, the risk of developing asthma is greatest in those with rhinovirus C infection, especially if they also are sensitized with IgE against foods.
Inappropriate antibiotic use for a child with a viral respiratory infection is not a “one and done” error. Children who receive antibiotics when diagnosed with a viral respiratory infection are more likely to seek care for viral infections subsequently and to receive inappropriate antibiotics again.
Tachypnea has long been considered to identify which children with acute fever and cough might benefit from antibiotic treatment, especially in resource-limited parts of the world. Now, with declining rates of vaccine-preventable infections with Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococcus, new data suggest that approximately 90% of febrile, tachypneic, coughing (but still well enough for outpatient treatment) preschoolers do fine without antibiotics.