Several strategies have proven effective in reducing transmission of HIV, including access to confidential testing and counseling, early introduction of HIV medications, and male circumcision. Three new studies show what actually affects the spread of HIV in populations, and results vary between different African settings.
In a multicenter, randomized clinical trial, researchers found that a single dose of intravenous amoxicillin/clavulanic acid significantly reduced the risk of infection following operative vaginal birth (forceps or vacuum extraction) compared to placebo (180 of 1,619 [11%] vs. 306 of 1,606 [19%], respectively; P < 0.0001).
Transplacental antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Egress Antigen-1 may protect infants from severe malarial infection during the first year of life. This new knowledge about these antibodies potentially can inform vaccine development.