Gluten neuropathy should be suspected in any patient who presents with a neuropathy and has a history of gastrointestinal disease. The diagnosis is made using blood serology plus intestinal mucosal biopsy.
Breastfeeding is associated with less frequent bacterial infections and with less subsequent obesity. Using antibiotics reduces or removes these favorable effects of breastfeeding, perhaps via alterations in the intestinal microbiota.
Duodenal biopsies in patients naïve to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) underwent tissue staining and were examined. Intestinal myofibroblast activation was correlated with intestinal fibrotic changes and poor immune reconstitution following cART.