COVID-19 is a systemic disease that primarily injures the vascular endothelium, causing a unique lung injury in which different management strategies may need to be considered to address the specific physiology of each patient.
In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention noted the association of vaping and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the number of new cases has decreased, new cases are still appearing.
If dealing with the COVID-19 outbreak and peak flu season are not enough, frontline providers in the ED also need to remain on the lookout for cases of e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). One big problem is that the symptoms of these illnesses can overlap, making it difficult to distinguish between flu-associated pneumonia and EVALI.
The guidance states that patients suspected of presenting with e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury should undergo a chest radiograph. Hospital admission is recommended for patients with low blood oxygen levels or who are in respiratory distress.
Ultrasound has emerged as a critical tool for use at the bedside to guide both diagnosis and treatment strategies. In this article, the authors discuss cardiac arrest, congenital abnormalities, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and pneumonia.
Hemodynamic monitoring is a very important component in effectively resuscitating critically ill patients. Various methods of hemodynamic monitoring not only give the physician an idea of the patient’s overall pathophysiology, but can alert the physician to acute changes.