In a series of studies in gnotobiotic animals and malnourished children, incomplete recovery from malnutrition is associated with immature gut microbiota, and complementary foods directed to enhance microbiotal maturity improved recovery from malnutrition.
Relative to vancomycin or metronidazole treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection, treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation is associated with a reduced risk of bloodstream infection, shorter hospital length of stay, and improved survival.
In a small randomized, controlled trial that compared fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) administered by enema to a six-week oral vancomycin taper, FMT was not more effective for patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.
The long-term consumption of a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean diet or low-fat/high complex carbohydrate diets, may exert a protective effect on the development of type 2 diabetes by changing the gut microbiota, increasing the abundance of Roseburia genera and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, respectively.
Breastfeeding is associated with less frequent bacterial infections and with less subsequent obesity. Using antibiotics reduces or removes these favorable effects of breastfeeding, perhaps via alterations in the intestinal microbiota.
Relapsing and refractory Clostridium difficile infection has become a real challenge for clinicians and affected patients alike. Some patients wind up in a seemingly never-ending cycle of illness, gradual improvement, followed by a prolonged vancomycin taper, and eventual relapse.