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Articles Tagged With: pediatric

  • Approach to Pediatric Abdominal Pain in the ED: Part I

    Abdominal pain is a common pediatric chief complaint with a diversity of etiologies. Many are benign, but some have the potential for devastating consequences if a timely diagnosis is not made. Understanding and practicing a comprehensive approach facilitates consideration of more serious pathology while allowing for a focused diagnostic plan. This two-part series guides the clinician to a practical clinical approach to pediatric abdominal pain.

  • Acute Treatment of Pediatric Migraine

    Migraines occur in young children, but may be challenging to diagnose. Migraines can have a great impact on pediatric patients’ quality of life with school absence and limitations on extracurricular activities. Treatment of pediatric migraines or possible migraines is difficult secondary to the lack of evidence for effective therapies in pediatric patients. Treatment includes traditional therapy with dopamine receptor antagonists (DRAs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), triptans, and combination therapies. Newer therapies include magnesium, valproic acid (VPA), and peripheral nerve blocks. The authors review the clinical presentation of migraines in children, guidelines for diagnosis, and therapeutic options.

  • Pediatric Pneumonia — Evolving Diagnosis and Management

    Tachypnea has long been considered to identify which children with acute fever and cough might benefit from antibiotic treatment, especially in resource-limited parts of the world. Now, with declining rates of vaccine-preventable infections with Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococcus, new data suggest that approximately 90% of febrile, tachypneic, coughing (but still well enough for outpatient treatment) preschoolers do fine without antibiotics.

  • Pediatric Cardiothoracic Point-of-Care Ultrasound: Part I

    Ultrasound has emerged as a critical tool for use at the bedside to guide not only diagnosis but treatment strategies as well. The first part of this article focuses on the uses and limitations of cardiac ultrasound in the acute setting. Part II will include discussion of cardiac arrest, congenital abnormalities, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and pneumonia.

  • Pediatric Ocular Trauma: A Clinical Perspective

    Eye trauma can be devastating to a child and challenging to the clinician. These authors review common traumatic eye injuries and provide tips for the clinical evaluation of our youngest patients.

  • Pediatric Medication Safety

    Our smallest patients are the most vulnerable to medication errors. An awareness of potential vulnerabilities when prescribing in this population is essential. The authors discuss when medication errors are particularly likely, common types of errors, and strategies to minimize the potential for errors.

  • Recanalization Treatment in Pediatric Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    In a population-based study from Switzerland, the authors found that recanalization treatment (intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular treatment) overall was safe without significant side effects or increased mortality compared to standard care.

  • Cannabidiol for Pediatric Seizures

    Three months of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extract decreased mean monthly seizure frequency in children and young adults with refractory epilepsy.

  • PANDAS: Examining the Evidence for Treatment Options

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) is a proposed disorder first named in 1998 that has been the subject of controversy in the literature. Although the debate has waned somewhat in the United States, it remains a topic of discussion in many European medical journals. A recent systematic review found no evidence for antimicrobial or immunomodulatory treatment for this condition.

  • Cervical Spinal Injury

    Although spinal injuries are uncommon, they should be considered when children have sustained head or neck trauma or multiple severe injuries. Children with severe or multisystem trauma are more likely to suffer a spinal injury. Thus, emergency department providers should have a lower threshold to immobilize and image such patients to prevent morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the most common pediatric spinal fractures and injuries and optimal management practices.