The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has issued a final recommendation statement and evidence summary upholding its earlier recommendation against use of hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal women.
Results of recent research indicate that vaginal estrogen is effective and safe for the treatment of genitourinary symptoms. Such low-dose vaginal estrogen options keep blood levels within the normal postmenopausal range.
A systematic review of randomized, controlled trials of calcium supplementation found only small non-progressive increases in bone mineral density. This supports the clinical conclusion that supplementation alone is insufficient to prevent fracture risk.