A retrospective cohort study from a single California hospital found the administration of probiotics to patients receiving antibiotics did not reduce the incidence of healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection.
The authors of a before-and-after intervention study and a meta-analysis found that probiotics reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The strategy seems to work best in hospital settings where the incidence of CDI is ≥ 5% and for patients receiving two or more antibiotics.
A 12-week intervention of daily supplementation with probiotics Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) 10 billion colony-forming units produced no reduction in the number of days absent from day care in Danish infants 8 to 14 months old.
A randomized, controlled trial of recommendations that asthmatics (5 years of age and older) take free daily probiotics over a winter season failed to show any benefits in terms of antibiotic usage or overall respiratory health.
The administration of aLactobacillus paracaseistrain (F19) twice daily and 3 times per week for 6 months appears to reduce the incidence of bowel symptoms (bloating and flatulence) and reduce changes in bowel habits (increased stool frequency and loose stools) but not abdominal pain in patients taking proton pump inhibitors.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei 01 was provided to women with rheumatoid arthritis at a dosage of 108 colony forming units for a period of 8 weeks and compared to a placebo treatment. Disease activity score and levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12 were found to be significantly decreased at the end of the intervention. Additional parameters of state and trait anxiety were also evaluated and were not significantly altered by therapies.