Community-acquired pneumonia is a common cause for hospital admission. This article serves to summarize new updates in the definition, prognosis, and treatment, specifically of bacterial, severe community-acquired pneumonia.
Researchers analyzed the diagnostic accuracy and yield of sputum Gram stain (SGS) in community-acquired pneumonia across 24 studies of 4,533 adult patients in a meta-analysis. SGS was specific for the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae infection.
In patients with newly diagnosed community-acquired pneumonia, basing the duration of antibiotic treatment on clinical stability criteria led to a significant reduction in duration of antibiotic treatment without an increased risk of adverse outcomes.
An active population-based surveillance of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization in adults 18 years of age and older was conducted in five hospitals in Chicago and Nashville. The incidence of CAP requiring hospitalization was highest in older adults. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, no pathogen was identified in most patients. Respiratory viruses were identified more frequently than bacteria.
A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and evidence of high inflammation found less treatment failure in those who received steroids. However, in-hospital mortality did not differ between the groups.