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December 1, 2021

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  • Incidence, Prevalence, and Long-Term Consequences of Small Fiber Neuropathy

    Small fiber neuropathy (SFN), a subtype of peripheral neuropathy characterized by painful distal neuropathic pain and autonomic symptoms, is increasing in incidence. SFN associated with diabetes and other causes is more likely to progress to large-fiber polyneuropathy and have faster deterioration and higher disability compared to slow progression with idiopathic SFN. Glucose impairment, obesity, and elevated triglycerides are modifiable risk factors of idiopathic SFN. Although major disability and neurologic impairment are uncommon in this slowly progressive condition, higher mortality and cardiovascular events are noted in patients with SFN.

  • TSPO PET Imaging for Monitoring Natalizumab-Associated Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Authors of a recent study evaluated inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis patients who developed natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) using translocator protein positron emission tomography (TSPO PET) for imaging of microglia. They demonstrated that TSPO PET can monitor PML longitudinally.

  • Gene and Substrate Therapy for Neurogenetic Disease: A Combined Approach to Treat Mitochondrial Myopathy

    A combined adenoviral-mediated gene therapy plus substrate therapy delivered to a mouse model of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency, manifested most often as a fatal mitochondrial myopathy in infants and children, rescued TK2 activity and prolonged animal lifespan, thus indicating a promising therapeutic approach for affected patients.

  • Infections Before Age 20 Years Increase the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    The relationship between childhood infections and the risk of multiple sclerosis is supported by increasing evidence. Using the Swedish Total Population Register, researchers found that patients diagnosed with infection in adolescence showed an increased risk of multiple sclerosis, even after exclusion of infectious mononucleosis, pneumonia, and central nervous system infection.

  • Eculizumab for Refractory Myasthenia Gravis

    Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the C-5 complement terminal complex formation, is a safe and effective treatment for generalized myasthenia gravis with acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies, even after failed treatment with other immunosuppressive regimens.