Several guidelines recommend using the CHA2DS2-VASc score for determining the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the treatment recommendations are not the same in all guidelines.
Due to the cost of blood transfusions and the lack of data supporting liberal transfusion policies, newer guidelines recommend more restrictive transfusion thresholds (e.g., hemoglobin < 7 g/dL). However, many believe cardiac surgery is an exception due to the myocardium’s high oxygen requirement.
Moderate or severe paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) has been reported in up to one-quarter of patients following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and has been associated with a higher 1-year mortality. Whether PVR is the cause of increased mortality or is simply associated with mortality is unclear.
Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and its presence is associated with reductions in functional capacity, quality of life, and survival. Several clinical trials have shown improved outcomes in patients with HF and ID who are treated with IV iron. However, these trials only administered IV iron for short periods of time, and the long-term effects of IV iron in these patients are not well understood.