Is there a link between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer and dementia? That is what a cohort study of men treated with ADT sought to determine. Researchers reviewed the records of nearly 9,300 men with prostate cancer, of whom about 20% received ADT. After a mean follow-up of 3.4 years, there was a statistically significant association between use of ADT and risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-2.99; P < 0.001). The absolute risk of dementia was 7.9% for those who received ADT vs. 3.5% for those who did not. Men treated for at least 12 months demonstrated the greatest absolute risk of dementia. The authors suggested ADT in the treatment of prostate cancer may be associated with an increased risk of dementia. This finding should be further evaluated in prospective studies (JAMA Oncol. Published online Oct. 13, 2016. DOI:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.3662). This study confirms a growing body of evidence that ADT is associated with cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer’s disease.