A new interleukin-31 inhibitor is under evaluation for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Nemolizumab was compared to placebo in a 12-week trial in 216 adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis that was inadequately controlled by topical treatments. Three different dose ranges of the active drug were administered subcutaneously every four weeks, along with placebo. Nemolizumab performed significantly better than placebo in the pruritus visual-analogue scale for all three dose ranges, with increasing efficacy with higher dosing (P > 0.01 for all comparisons). For all measures, the intermediate dose (0.5 mg/kg every four weeks) demonstrated the best benefit-risk profile. The authors concluded that nemolizumab reduced pruritus in patients suffering from moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (N Engl J Med 2017;376:826-835). This study was sponsored by Chugai Pharmaceutical.