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<p><span style="color: rgb(65, 65, 65); letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline !important; float: none;">Some IRB members cite uncertainty on whether inclusion of pregnant participants could affect the study’s scientific validity. Others acknowledge they rely on the common, default practice of excluding pregnant individuals without requiring justification. Guidance is needed for characterizing the risk level of research procedures in the context of pregnancy.</span></p>

IRBs Often Reluctant to Approve Inclusion of Pregnant Participants in Research