Although carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a less invasive means of carotid revascularization, multiple trials have demonstrated an increased risk of post-procedural stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis, as compared to carotid endarterectomy (CEA).
Symptomatic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is common in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), and medical therapy does not always relieve the symptoms. In such cases, septal reduction therapies are indicated, and both alcohol septal ablation (ASA) and surgical myectomy have been proven to reduce symptoms effectively.
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following coronary stenting is essential for the prevention of stent thrombosis, which can occur due to a response to the vascular scaffold, as well as to the local inflammation that occurs after angioplasty. DAPT after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently recommended for at least 12 months in the United States and for 6 months in Europe.
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an invasive technique for determination of the physiologic significance of an intermediate coronary lesion. Multiple studies have demonstrated the ability of FFR to guide revascularization decisions.