Neurological issues in children can take a very dramatic but relatively benign form, or can be subtle but representative of serious underlying illness. Differentiating between high- and low-risk presentations can be challenging, but a thorough understanding of pediatric practice guidelines can help emergency department physicians determine the most appropriate ED interventions and eliminate potential injury to a child from either excessive intervention or the sequelae of a missed diagnosis. This monograph will help ED physicians recognize and appropriately treat seizures in children, and provide advice to worried parents about their child’s potential for seizure recurrence. In addition, physicians will learn how to determine which patients require lumbar puncture and understand the risks of brain CT imaging in the pediatric population. It also covers how to know when to emergently or urgently refer children to pediatric neurology.
Aß 42, measured in cerebrospinal fluid, may help determine whether patients have normal or increased cortical Aß deposition. Additionally, abnormal PET 18F-flutemetamol retention levels correlate with disease stage in patients with mild cognitive symptoms.
In a prospective study of 35 patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic intracranial hypertension confirmed by diagnostic lumbar puncture and treated with standard medication regimens, 43% of patients had excellent headache outcome at 12 months, with the major improvement seen within the first month of diagnosis.
Carotid MRI scanning was performed in 1414 stroke-free participants, older than the age of 45 years, to assess the morphology of any atherosclerotic plaques, specifically to look at the presence of a lipid core, intraplaque hemorrhage, calcification, or fibrous tissue in each carotid artery.
In addition to autoantibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor (AchR) and the receptor-associated protein muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) demonstrate a host of other antibodies.