Lifestyle is a critical determinant of the common risk factors for cardiovascular disease (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking) that have been well-known to predict disease outcomes. Lifestyle medicine can be used in conjunction with traditional medications to provide the best care to patients. Clinicians need to act now to prevent being overwhelmed with the eventual increase in coronary artery disease following the obesity/diabetes epidemic.
Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and death by using daily low-dose aspirin is not recommended and should be reserved for those instances in which secondary prevention has been demonstrated to be effective in randomized clinical trials.
With cardiovascular disease now the leading cause of death for women, the American Heart Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have issued a joint advisory to help women lower their risk factors for heart disease and stroke.
Hypertension is a common and serious condition that contributes to an estimated 40% of deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke, and is the second leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Because of the importance and frequency of hypertension in primary care practices, we are devoting two issues to the subject. This issue focuses on the definition of blood pressure and current guidelines, risk factors, relationship to cardiovascular disease, blood pressure measurement, patient evaluation, and secondary causes. The next issue will cover treatments (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), initial therapy, relationship to various disease conditions (diabetes, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic stroke, stroke prevention, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, aortic regurgitation, sexual dysfunction), resistant hypertension, hypertensive crises and emergencies, preoperative management, and adherence strategies.
The authors of this review of key nutritional studies compiled evidence-based information on foods and dietary patterns that support cardiovascular health and demystified those that have incorrectly been identified as beneficial to cardiovascular health.
This large-scale, observational, prospective study investigating types of plant-based diets found an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adherents to plant-based diets containing foods such as fruit juices, refined grains, sweetened beverages, and desserts.
A large, multi-ethnic study found that tea consumption was associated with slowed progression of coronary artery disease and lowered risk of cardiovascular events when compared to never drinkers; coffee intake appears to have no measurable effect.