Lifestyle is a critical determinant of the common risk factors for cardiovascular disease (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking) that have been well-known to predict disease outcomes. Lifestyle medicine can be used in conjunction with traditional medications to provide the best care to patients. Clinicians need to act now to prevent being overwhelmed with the eventual increase in coronary artery disease following the obesity/diabetes epidemic.
The choices for insulin therapy are ever increasing with the development of new products that provide greater flexibility, greater range of effectiveness, lower risk of hypoglycemia, and lower pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability. These allow for individualization of treatment to match a patient’s daily life but typically at greater cost. This article will review the psychological, social, and clinical factors pertaining to the various insulin products, as well as strategies to initiate and intensify insulin therapy, to help clinicians supplement and enhance their clinical practices in diabetes management.
With cardiovascular disease now the leading cause of death for women, the American Heart Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have issued a joint advisory to help women lower their risk factors for heart disease and stroke.
Diabetic retinopathy is a complex disorder of the microvascular and neuronal structure of the retina. Although poorly understood, the problem does not start in the retina, but rather begins through systemic metabolic dysfunction, which causes damage to retina vessels. This article will review the structure of the retina, the systemic pathophysiology of diabetes, the resulting damage to retinal structure and function, comorbidities, traditional treatments, and prevention and treatment for diabetic retinopathy and its comorbidities.
Microstructural nerve damage in distal symmetric diabetic neuropathy differs between subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The predominant nerve lesions in T1D correlated with hyperglycemia and nerve conduction impairment, while the predominant lesions in T2D correlated with dyslipidemia.
Breastfeeding for six months or longer cuts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes nearly in half for women throughout their childbearing years, according to results of a long-term observational study.
The hallmark of neuropathy associated with type 2 diabetes is reduction of sensory nerve action potential amplitude and not a reduction in conduction velocity, supporting the hypothesis that hyperglycemia causes axonal dysfunction and injury.