With cardiovascular disease now the leading cause of death for women, the American Heart Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have issued a joint advisory to help women lower their risk factors for heart disease and stroke.
Diabetic retinopathy is a complex disorder of the microvascular and neuronal structure of the retina. Although poorly understood, the problem does not start in the retina, but rather begins through systemic metabolic dysfunction, which causes damage to retina vessels. This article will review the structure of the retina, the systemic pathophysiology of diabetes, the resulting damage to retinal structure and function, comorbidities, traditional treatments, and prevention and treatment for diabetic retinopathy and its comorbidities.
Microstructural nerve damage in distal symmetric diabetic neuropathy differs between subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The predominant nerve lesions in T1D correlated with hyperglycemia and nerve conduction impairment, while the predominant lesions in T2D correlated with dyslipidemia.
Breastfeeding for six months or longer cuts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes nearly in half for women throughout their childbearing years, according to results of a long-term observational study.
The hallmark of neuropathy associated with type 2 diabetes is reduction of sensory nerve action potential amplitude and not a reduction in conduction velocity, supporting the hypothesis that hyperglycemia causes axonal dysfunction and injury.
Diabetes mellitus is expensive, but most of the costs are attributed to complications and hospital care.This article will review the recommendations from the ADA 2017 Standards of Care for microvascular complications and relevant position statements, and will highlight preventive screening and clinical pearls for the primary care physician treating patients with diabetes.