Although many cases of extremity pain are the result of mild, self-limited issues, ischemia and gangrene are catastrophic causes of pain that initially can present with nondescript findings. To limit tissue loss and optimize patient outcomes, emergency physicians must be able to distinguish benign limb pain from the earliest stages of high-risk, life- and limb-threatening disease.
Relying on the most current literature, this article discusses the causes of syncope and syncope mimics, provides the best practice evaluation strategies, and will refamiliarize emergency physicians with current state-of-the-art practices regarding syncope risk stratification guidelines.
Blood-feeding ticks can transmit a wide variety of pathogens to people, which can result in significant infection and morbidity. During the past 10 years, the incidence of these diseases has increased rapidly, and the geographical regions where they occur has expanded. Recognizing symptoms that often are nonspecific and initiating appropriate treatment are critical to patient outcomes.
Thrombocytopenia is encountered commonly in the emergency department. In most instances, the emergency physician will not be able to determine the definitive diagnosis, but it is important that the initial evaluation be started in a timely manner and that appropriate specialists be consulted from the emergency department.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends that all citizens be tested for HIV infection at least once between the ages of 13 and 64 years. Results of a recent study indicate that age 25 would be better than younger ages for a single HIV screening test among those young adults without symptoms.
New information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates the estimated median time from HIV infection to diagnosis improved from three years and seven months in 2011 to three years in 2015.
The American College of Gastroenterology has developed a guideline dealing with the management of immunocompetent adults with acute infectious diarrhea, other than that due to Clostridium difficile infection.