A before-and-after intervention study compared 170 patients treated with either oxacillin IV or vancomycin IV for six weeks (plus gentamicin IV given during the first five days) to 171 patients who were treated with TMP/SMZ IV plus clindamycin IV for the first week followed by TMP/SMZ PO (without clindamycin) to complete a six-week course. Mortality and hospital length of stay were significantly less in the TMP/SMZ-treated patients.
Coinfection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children with influenza is associated with high fatality. Data support the addition of a second anti-MRSA antibiotic to vancomycin in severely ill children.
Although the rate of hospital-onset MRSA bacteremia has decreased since 2012, the rate of decrease has slowed. The National Action Plan goal of a 50% reduction by 2012 compared to 2015 seems out of reach.
In the first study to investigate the potential interactions between bacterial infections and lymphatic function, researchers found that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus toxins killed muscle cells critical to the pumping of lymph fluid and led to prolonged lymphatic dysfunction months after the bacteria had been cleared.
A population-based case-control study from Denmark found the use of statins was associated with a decreased risk for community-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, with the greatest benefit from higher doses.
A retrospective study that included patients from 119 Veterans Affairs hospitals found lower mortality and a similar recurrence rate for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia treated with cefazolin compared to nafcillin and oxacillin.
Using several in vitro assays and animal models, it was shown that oxacillin-treated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains are attenuated in virulence. The effect is mediated by repression of accessory gene regulatory quorum-sensing system and altered cell wall architecture.
A case-control study observed an increased risk for developing community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with the use of systemic glucocorticoids. A distinct dose-response relationship was found.