Cefazolin (CZ) and ertapenem combination therapy was successfully used to salvage 11 cases of persistent methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Modest in vitro synergy between CZ and ertapenem was demonstrated on testing of six clinical isolates, but in vivo activity appeared more potent in an animal model than as predicted by in vitro activity.
Using a population-based database, investigators found that the rate of readmission within 30 days following hospitalization for S. aureus bacteremia was high (22%) and resulted in high cost to the healthcare system.
In a retrospective cohort study of 350 patients, the combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic plus daptomycin was not superior to beta-lactam monotherapy in patients with bacteremia due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.
A before-and-after intervention study compared 170 patients treated with either oxacillin IV or vancomycin IV for six weeks (plus gentamicin IV given during the first five days) to 171 patients who were treated with TMP/SMZ IV plus clindamycin IV for the first week followed by TMP/SMZ PO (without clindamycin) to complete a six-week course. Mortality and hospital length of stay were significantly less in the TMP/SMZ-treated patients.
Coinfection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children with influenza is associated with high fatality. Data support the addition of a second anti-MRSA antibiotic to vancomycin in severely ill children.
Although the rate of hospital-onset MRSA bacteremia has decreased since 2012, the rate of decrease has slowed. The National Action Plan goal of a 50% reduction by 2012 compared to 2015 seems out of reach.
In the first study to investigate the potential interactions between bacterial infections and lymphatic function, researchers found that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus toxins killed muscle cells critical to the pumping of lymph fluid and led to prolonged lymphatic dysfunction months after the bacteria had been cleared.
A population-based case-control study from Denmark found the use of statins was associated with a decreased risk for community-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, with the greatest benefit from higher doses.