Known coronaviruses can enter the central nervous system by different pathophysiologic mechanisms. Neurological presentations linked to the novel SARS-CoV-2 include encephalopathy, encephalitis, cranial neuropathies, Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neuropathies, and ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes.
Neurological symptoms and impairments have been found in one-third of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from countries that have reported these observations so far. This is a rapidly evolving consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
While data remain limited on this particular coronavirus, extrapolation from other viruses (severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome), and best clinical observations and expert recommendations have led to current guidelines in care.
While some researchers try to learn useful information from COVID-19 case data, other scientists are working on the early stages of various clinical trials, seeking a pharmaceutical remedy to the virus.
As more COVID-19 tests become available, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is broadening its criteria to test more symptomatic patients — regardless of travel history or a known exposure to another case.
Envenomations can occur from a variety of species. They can cause symptoms that range from minor skin irritation to systemic signs and symptoms, organ failure, and even death. Knowing the signs and symptoms of envenomation are important for management and disposition.