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Ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap) is nosocomial pneumonia occurring in a mechanically ventilated patient > 48 hours after intubation. It is categorized as early-onset (defined by most experts as 48-96 hours after intubation) and late-onset (> 2-96 hours after intubation): these differ with respect to responsible bacterial agents as well as outcomes. With an estimated incidence of 8-28% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients, or 13-35 cases per 1000 ventilator-days, VAP is common.

Special Feature: Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia