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In a survey of 365,000 records of patients followed by general practitioners in Holland for at least 1 year during a 7-year period, 5551 incident cases of pneumonia developed. Users of acid suppression, particularly proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), had a 4.5 fold increased unadjusted risk of pneumonia, compared to untreated controls.

Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Use of Gastric Acid-Suppressive Drugs