The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Physicians have provided advice on the best practice regarding the duration of antibiotic therapy for a number of common infections.
In England, and likely in many other areas of the world, antibiotics still are given for longer than is necessary. Excessively long durations of antibiotic use do not help patients and risk leading to more resistant infections.
A randomized controlled clinical trial found that a seven-day course of oral moxifloxacin was not noninferior to two days of intravenous ertapenem followed by five days of levofloxacin and metronidazole in adults with uncomplicated acute appendicitis.
A population-based cohort study showed that exposure to antibiotics during the first two years of life is associated with increased rates of subsequently developing asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, celiac disease, and obesity.
International travel carries a risk of colonization by antimicrobial-resistant intestinal flora. Using quinolone, but not a macrolide, during travel further increases the risk of acquisition of extended-spectrum, beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.