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Articles Tagged With: pediatric

  • Infectious Meningitis: A Focused Review

    The effectiveness of the current vaccine schedule has led to a significant decline in the incidence of bacterial meningitis. Delays in recognition and antibiotic administration result in increased morbidity and mortality; therefore, clinicians must maintain a high degree of vigilance for the subtle findings of meningitis, particularly in infants. Current standards for selective imaging, diagnostic testing, and empiric antibiotics are discussed.

  • Recognizing Pediatric Sepsis: Early Diagnosis Critical to Recovery

    Identifying pediatric sepsis and treating it quickly can be a matter of life and death.

  • Pediatric Sepsis and Septic Shock

    Pediatric sepsis is a high-stakes diagnosis that requires vigilance to make an early, timely diagnosis. Aggressive resuscitation, including fluids, antibiotics, and vasoactive agents, may be necessary. Rapidly changing standard of care also makes sepsis a critical diagnosis for clinicians.

  • Unexpected Benefit of Pneumococcal Vaccine in Decreasing the Burden of Otitis Media

    Surveillance data collected prospectively in Israel reveal a decline in progression from pneumococcal carriage to complex otitis media in both vaccine-targeted and non-vaccine serotypes following implementation of routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Vaccinating against pneumococcal serotypes causing early-life infections may reduce the risk of subsequently developing complex otitis media due to other organisms.

  • Approach to Pediatric Eye Discharge and Periorbital Swelling

    Eye problems, particularly conjunctivitis and periorbital swelling, are very common. The majority are managed easily, but more serious disease processes must be considered. Early recognition and prompt treatment of more serious etiologies, such as gonococcal conjunctivitis and herpes simplex virus, can prevent vision loss.

  • The Pediatric Airway and Rapid Sequence Intubation in Trauma

    This article will discuss in detail the approach to the pediatric trauma patient, with a strict focus on the pediatric airway.

  • Pediatric Airway Management

    Pediatric patients frequently present with respiratory complaints. Fortunately, most children respond well to simple medical interventions. Understanding a child's anatomic and physiologic differences is critical to effectively preventing respiratory failure and stabilizing a child when it occurs.

  • Pediatric Syncope: Current Status of Diagnostic Evaluation and Management

    Children may present to the emergency department with a potential syncopal event. Although the presentation is unusual, everyone fears missing a cardiac issue. The authors present a concise review, focusing on the history, physical exam, and ECG, of how to evaluate and manage a child with syncope, differentiating other mimics and discussing the current therapeutic approach to the most common diagnosis.

  • Pediatric Pain Management in the Emergency Department

    Pain management in the pediatric population has long been a focus of healthcare providers; nevertheless, gaps in providing adequate and timely pain management remain an area of concern in EDs. This article will provide guidance for the recognition and successful management of pediatric pain in the ED setting. The authors first present definitions of pain and discuss the assessment of pain in a child, as well as common barriers to appropriate pediatric pain management in the ED. Then, the article will focus on the different aspects of pain and techniques of managing discomfort, including: anxiolysis, non-pharmacological strategies, topical medications, oral analgesics, parenteral medications, discharge medications, and misconceptions and facts about opioid analgesics. Pain control in conjunction with procedural sedation is beyond the scope of this article.

  • Pediatric Procedural Sedation

    Procedural sedation is a critical skill to facilitate the performance of necessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children. The clinician must have knowledge of the preparatory steps, indications, pharmacologic agents, monitoring, and recovery phase to safely and effectively perform this necessary adjunct to many common procedures. The authors review steps, current recommendations, and options to utilize procedural sedation skillfully in children. In addition, they present guidelines for managing adverse events that may be associated with the administration of procedural sedation.